Governance and management of public organizations : to which value creation models

GEP 2021

Finance Human Resources & Organizations Business, Economics & Management (General)


Public organizations are owned or controlled by the government. A distinction is made between public administrations, local authorities, public and semi-public establishments and public companies. On one side, some researchers consider that these structures present various dysfunctions and apparent deficiencies, in particular because of their organizational nature and the purpose of their institution (Charreaux, 2006). By hid side, Albouy & Obeid, (2009) explains the inefficiency of public organizations mainly by an embarrassing bureaucracy and an overly centralized hierarchy.

On the other side, public organizations have distinguished themselves through their management and governance methods and hence their performances at the international level (Tom Christensen and Per Laegreid, 2010; Denys Lamarzelle, 2008; François Lacasse, Pierre-Eric Verrier, 2005; Beauvallet Maya, 2009) and national level (OCP, MASEN, TANGER MED, ADM, REGIE DES TABACS, MAROC TELECOM, MARSA MAROC, TMSA, HAO and RADEEMA ).

Public organizations are not necessarily ineffective (Charreaux G. (1997). Today, almost everywhere in the world, evaluating performance of public organizations has become a necessity. New Public Management “NPM” (Chevallier , 1997); Pettigrew, 1997; Gouiffès and Carmona, 1999) seeks to formulate a response to the social pressure which wants us to make good use of public funds to provide quality services  to citizens.

New concepts are thus emerging: new public governance (Osborne, 2006), the neo-Weberian state (Cepiku and Meneguzzo, 2011) or Governance of the digital age (Dunleavy et al. 2006) ... Despite this conceptual proliferation and amendments to which it may have been the subject in the forerunner countries, NPM continues to spread worldwide, particularly in countries which have recently joined it (Diefenbach, 2009, Dunleavy et al. 2006), (Desmarais, 2008; Huron, 2011).

Rather performance-oriented, the NMG uses various approaches (Abord de Chatillon and Desmarais, 2012) namely Managerialism (Boyne, 2003; Kirkpatrick et al., 2005, Diefenbach, 2009), accountability (Barberis, 1998) and contracting or even delegated management (Boyne, 2003) within the framework of a public / private partnership (PPP) logic.

With the new forms of administrative governance and the various reforms and modernization that Moroccan public organizations have experienced in recent years, and under the combined effect of the LOLF (Organic Law on Finance Laws) of 2016 which is based on the strengthening the performance of public management and administration. The last one has become a priority of all decision-makers and given the development of new information and communication technologies (NICT) and digital transformations. And then, controlling performance has become a major research topic.

Because of the necessity to proceed to a transformation  digital transformation of public services, Morocco has launched several projects in this direction, including:  the administrative reform through the National Plan for the Reform of Administration 2018-2021, Morocco Digital Strategy 2013 and 2020, E-Gov, and the establishment of the Digital Development Agency (ADD), responsible for the implementation of the State's strategy for the development of Digital.

The digital transformation is a strategic axis in the national plan for administration reform. it has enabled the dematerialization of a large number of services, and the simplification of several administrative procedures, through the implementation of integrated information system.

Broadly speaking, governance refers to the structures and decision-making processes that are geared toward the conduct of various affairs that are not part of the exclusive domain of state organizations (Bruce-Lockhart, 2016). According to Fukuyama (2016), there are at least three different meanings of governance, among which public organization, seen as an effective implementation of state policy, seems particularly relevant. It is often noted that the term itself has no precisely determined semantic boundaries (Welch, 2013, p. 255). However, governance is most often seen as actions and arrangements, formal or informal, rather than static institutional bodies (OECD, 2011).

The complex nature of governance implies its multidimensionality. Brunet and Aubry (2016) highlight three similar aspects of governance, efficiency, legitimacy and accountability, in their conceptualization of governance. However, the effort to identify the desired characteristics of governance gave rise to the concept of good governance. UNHCR (2018) lists transparency, responsibility, accountability, participation and responsiveness as attributes of good governance. UNESCO (2018) expects good governance to be participatory, transparent, accountable, efficient and equitable. In particular, good governance is an essential condition for the achievement of development objectives (Ghaus-Pasha, 2007).

In Morocco, the introduction since 2012 of the Morocco Code of Good Governance Practices for PEC illustrates one of the founding principles of the 2011 constitution.

Today, the Moroccan public sector is characterized by a movement of increased modernization, an accentuation of the decentralization policy, as well as an opening to the international, and above all the launch of a plan for deep reform of the public sector.

In his speech from the throne of July 29, 2020, as in his speech to parliament on the occasion of the opening of the first session of the 5th legislature of the 10th legislature, His Majesty the King, may God assist him, has insisted on the need for public sector reform and a new social contract, the success of which remains conditioned by a real change in mentalities as well as a real change in the performance level of public establishments.

Several measures have been taken for the operationalization of the high royal guidelines, which consisted mainly in the adoption of two bills, the first concerns the creation of the national agency for the strategic management of State holdings and the monitoring of the performance of PECs, the second project consists of the substantial and balanced redefinition of the public sector.

The PLF 2021 finance law also took these instructions into consideration, emphasizing the importance of accelerating the recovery plan for the national economy, the preservation of employment positions, as well as the integration of the informal sector.

In Morocco, at the end of September 2020, the public portfolio was made up of 225 Public Establishments (EP) operating in diversified sectors and 43 Public Limited Companies with Direct Participation of the Treasury (SA-PDT). In addition, it should be noted that these EEPs hold 492 Subsidiaries or Participations, of which 54% are majority owned. The Public Limited Companies (SA) under the Territorial Collectivities bring together 22 entities, which is almost the same number as the last two years.

The establishment of the Moroccan public administration reform has led public organizations to embark on a process of restructuring and results-based management. Given the economic weight of this sector, Morocco wants to make it a modern sector "imbued with the culture and the practice of consultation and contractualization, and this by setting objectives, programs and plans, and by mobilizing means of their joint implementation ”(Extract from the royal speech of December 9, 2002, which mentioned this new orientation). To prepare for this major project of structural and organizational change, managers tend to be equipped with modern management systems, thus helping them to master the workings of public management. At the same time, the Moroccan Code of Good Practices in PEC governance was officially launched on March 21, 2012, as a reference comprising the rules and good practices to improve the management framework of public entities (correlation between responsibility and accountability). New public management aims to promote a results-oriented public sector managerial culture (Cordella & Iannacci, 2010).

In this context, the driving role of public organizations and the dynamism of their contribution must be reflected by their main performance indicators (own investments and public-private partnership, turnover, added value and assets) and by the progression of their operational activity indicators (Gibert, 2002).

In addition, the financial contribution of PEEs in economic area is very important. Indeed, oIndeed, a report on PEC, made public recently and annexed to the 2021 PLF, informs that the turnover of the PEC sector recorded an increase of 5%, from  238.3 billion DH in 2018 to  252.9 1bn in 2019.

 Firstly, it should be noted that these notable performances were heckled by the results of operating beneficiaries, which recorded a contraction of 14% in 2019. Secondly, the investments made by the EEPs, amounted to more than 71.1 billion DH last year, posted a realization rate up 3 points compared to 2018. This rate reached 71% in 2019. Finally,  the new report on PEC was produced in a specific context where the State has taken concrete actions through the 2021 PLF.

In the same vein, King Mohammed VI, in his last Speech, called for "a profound reform of the public sector" which "must be launched with diligence to correct the structural dysfunctions of public establishments and companies, to guarantee complementarity. and optimal consistency between their respective missions and, ultimately, improve their economic and social efficiency ”.

To this end, the King ordered "the creation of a National Agency whose mission will be to ensure the strategic management of state holdings and to manage the performance of public establishments".

Aware of this situation, the public authorities have implemented various actions and modern management methods which primarily aim to improve the quality of the governance system.

In the light of the above, a number of questions arise: 

• What are the specificities of public organizations?

• What management performance system is adapted to those organizations?

• What are the determinants of the performance in public organizations?

• How to measure performance of public organizations?

• What are the good governance mechanisms of public organizations?

• How are they governed?

• How are they financed? What appropriate financing structures?

•What is the performance management of the public portfolio?

• What is the place of the customer in the management policy of public organizations?

• How do digitization and e-administration improve the performance of public organizations?

• What are the performing strategies of public organizations?

• How do public organizations define social responsibility?

• What are the best HR management performances of public organizations?

• How to ensure the sustainability of public organizations?

• What possible transformations of public organizations for better performance?

• What are the best ways to manage and control public organizations?

• How can we develop public entrepreneurship?

• What are the new realities of organizations in the public sphere?

Several themes can be dealt with:

1. Funding mechanisms of public organizations;

2. Governance of organizations, projects and public portfolios;

3. Marketing of public organizations;

4. Information systems, Digitalization and E-administration;

5. Strategies of public organizations;

6. Social responsibility of public organizations;

7. HR management in the public sector;

8. Sustainability, Transformations and restructuring of public organizations;

9. Management control and performance management of public organizations

10. Public Entrepreneurial Innovation

Participation in this second edition of the International congress of Entrepreneurship, Governance and Performance can follow that forms:

  • Communications;

  •  Round tables;

  • Doctoral workshops;

  • Workshop in research methodology,

  • Competition for innovative entrepreneurial projects


  1. Publication



  • II. Indicative calendar

Best papers presented will be published in a special issue of one of the following scientific journals: REPER, RMIEM, IGEP. Abstracts and submitted texts should be sent to the following email address:



  •  February 15, 2021: Publication of the call for papers

  •  March 15, 2021: Deadline for sending abstracts (1 page)

  •  March 31, 2021: Acceptance notifications

  •  May 01, 2021: Deadline of the provisional version of communications;

  •  May 15, 2021: Reception of entrepreneurial ideas;

  •  May 15, 2021: Deadline of the final version of communications.

    1. Organizing committee


  • OUHADI Said, LAREGO, ENCG, UCA, Marrakech

  • JAMAL Youssef, FSJES – Mohammedia, UH2 Casablanca

  • ELKACHRADI Rachid, LAREGO, ENCG, UCA, Marrakech

  • EZZIADI Abdelali, FP Sidi Bennour, UCD, Eljadida

  • BOUMAHDI Lobna, FSJES – Mohammedia, UH2 Casablanca.

  • RABI EL ABID AMRANI, Controller of State, Economy, Finance and Administrative Reform.

  • HAMLIRI Abdelouhab, FSJES –Ain Chock, UH2, Casablanca

  • JIBRAILI Zineb, ENCG, UCD, Eljadida.

  • BENJELLOUL Said, DEPP, Economy, Finance and Administrative Reform.

  • LAHOUIRICH Mohamed Wadie, UCA, Marrakech

  • OUASHIL M’bark, FSJES – Mohammedia, UH2 Casablanca.


  • OUZAKA Brahim, phd student, LAREGO, UCA, Marrakech

  • GHARRAFI MEHDI, phd student, UCA, Marrakech

  • BOUKHABZA SIRINE, phd student, LAREGO, UCA, Marrakech

  • ELFEROUALI SAMIRA, phd student, LAREGO, UCA, Marrakech

    1. Scientific committee  

    MORABBI KENZA, phd student, LAREGO, UCA, Marrakech


  • ACHABA Allal, Ibn Zohr University, Agadir, Morocco

  • AIT OUFKIR ZAKIA, LAREGO, ENCG, UCA, Marrakesh, Morocco

  • ATTAR ABDELILAH., Mohamed 1er University, Oujda, Morocco

  • Aurélien RAGAIGNE, Poitiers University, France

  • BAHHA Nawfal, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco

  • BALAMBO Mohammed Amine, Ibn Tofaïl University, Morocco

  • BELAKOUIRI Abdelghani, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco

  • BELAKOUIRI Abderrahim, HASSAN II University, Casablanca, Morocco

  • BELLIHI HASSAN, Ibn Zohr University, Agadir, Morocco

  • BEN MASSOU Si Mohamed, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco

  • BENHRIMIDA Mohamed, FSJES Hassan II, University, Mohammédia, Morocco

  • BENJELLOUL Said, , DEPP, Economy, Finance and Administrative Reform.

  • BENRAIS Amina, Université Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco

  • BENTALEB CHAFIK, Cadi Ayyad University,  Marrakech, Morocco

  • BOUMAHDI Loubna, Hassan II University, Casablanca, Morocco

  • BOUSSETA MOHAMED, Ibn Tofaïl, University Kenitra,  Morocco

  • CHAABITA Rachid, Hassan II University, Casablanca, Morocco

  • CHAKIR AHMED, Ibn Zohr University, Agadir, Morocco

  • CHAOUKI Farid, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco

  • CHRAIBI Hassan, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco

  • CHRAIBI Soufiane, Cadi Ayyad University , Marrakech, Morocco

  • Christophe MAUREL, Angers University, France

  • DEL CARMEN Maria, Valls Martinez, University of Almeria, Spain

  • DEVECIOGLU Sebathattin, Firat University, Elzig, Turquie

  • ELABJANI ABDELAZIZ, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco

  • ELJAOUHARI Elhassane, Ibn Zohr University, Agadir, Morocco

  • ELKACHRADI Rachid, Cadi Ayyad University,  Marrakech, Morocco

  • ELKADOURI Abdillah, Ibn Tofaïl University, Morocco

  • ELMABROUKI Mohamed Nabil Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco

  • ELMESKINE Lahcen, Ibn Zohr University, Agadir, Morocco

  • ELOUAZZANI Youssef, Ibn Zohr University Agadir, Morocco

  • ESSLIMANI Bouchra, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco

  • EZZIADI Abdellali, Chouaib Doukkali University, El Jadida, Morocco

  • FARAH Asmaa Sultan Moulay Slimane University, Beni Mellal, Morocco

  • FERHANE DRISS, Abdelmalek Saadi University, Tanger, Morocco

  • HABBA BADR, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco

  • HAMADI Chakib, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco

  • HAMIMIDA Mama, FSJES Hassan II University, Mohammédia, Maroc

  • HAMLIRI Abdelouhab, Hassan II  University, Casablanca  

  • HANSALI Abderrahim, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco

  • HASSI Abderrahman, ALAKHAWAYN University, Ifrane, Morocco

  • HILMI Yassine, Chouaib Doukkali University, ELJADIDA, Morocco

  • HOUSSAS M’bark, Ibn Zohr University, Agadir, Morocco

  • IDRISSI F. OTHMANE, Cadi Ayyad University Marrakesh, Morocco

  • JIBRAILI  Zineb, Chouaib Doukkali University, El Jadida, Morocco

  • JULIEN Pière-André, Institute for Research on SMEs University of Quebec in Trois-Rivières, Canada.

  • KOMAT Abdellatif, Hassan II University, Casablanca

  • KOUBAA Salah, Hassan II University, Casablanca

  • LAHOUIRICH Mohamed Wadie, UCA, Marrakesh

  • LAZAAR Sara, Cadi Ayyad University Marrakesh, Morocco

  • Mateusz Tomanek, Nicolous Copernicus University, Torun, Poland

  • MESSAOUDI Abderahmane, Cadi Ayyad University, Marraksch, Morocco

  • Ouashil M’bark, Hassan II University, Casablanca, Morocco

  • OUBDI Lahsen, Ibn Zohr University Agadir, Morocco

  • OUHADI SAID, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakesh Morocco

  • OULFARSI Salah, Chouaib Doukkali University, ELJADIDA, Morocco

  • PACITTO Jean-Claude, IUT TC, UNIVERSITE PARIS 12, France

  • PEDRO Antonio Martin Cervantes, University of Almeria, Spain

  • RABI EL ABID AMRANI, DEPP, Economy, Finance and Administrative Reform.

  • RADOUANE AMINE, Young Leaders Center Marrakesh,

  • RIGAR SIDI MOHAMED, Cadi Ayyad University Marrakesh,, Morocco

  • SABBARI Ahmed, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakesh,  Morocco

  • SAHIB EDDINE Abdelhak, Chouaib Doukkali University, El Jadida, Morocco

  • SBAI Hichamn Chouaib Doukkali University, EL JADIDA, Morocco

  • SCHMITT Christophe, Lorraine University, France

  • SIDMOU MOHAMED LARBI, Cadi Ayyad University Marrakech, Morocco

  • TEMNATI LAMYA, ENCG, Chouaib Doukkali University, EL JADIDA, Morocco

  • YOUSSEF JAMAL, FSJES Hassan II University Mohammédia, Morocco

  • ZAHRANE Tarek, Cadi Ayyad University Marrakesh, Morocco

  • ZAOUA Abderahim, Cadi Ayyad University Marrakesh, Morocco